By: Sampreeth k
In the early twenty-first century, one of the greatest revolutions in material science happened with the discovery of graphene, a substance that is harder than diamond but more flexible than rubber. Graphene’s electron mobility is 100 times that of silicon, the dominant element in semiconductor electronics. Its heat conductivity is double that of diamond, which is five times that of copper, the finest heat conductor. On the other hand, copper is far superior to diamond in terms of electrical conductivity; yet, it is still 13 times less than graphene. Graphene has a tensile strength 200 times that of steel, which is greater than 130 GPA. In other terms, a 1mm graphene thread can support up to 100 tonnes. With these unmatched properties, graphene technology has application in all domains, and it has the potential to completely replace all other materials in practically all fields. More properties of graphene are represented in Table 1.
Humanity may enter a graphene age similar to the store or iron ages. Having said that, graphene is now used in a limited number of applications, including sporting equipment, luxury automobiles, and military technologies. The primary constraint on graphene’s rapid adoption is its manufacturing complexity and, consequently, its cost.
|Electron Mobility At Room Temperature||15000 cm2⋅V−1⋅s−1|
|Thermally Conductive||4000 Wm−1 K−1|
|Electrical Conductivity||80-100 MS/m|
|Tensile strength||130 GPA|
|Young’s modulus||2.4 ± 0.4 TPa,|
|Elastic Modulus||381–385 N/m|
Since the late 1940s, research has been exploring the possibility of graphene, beginning with P. R. Wallace’s studies of the electrical characteristics of three-dimensional graphite. Electron microscopy was used to observe graphene in a single layer. However, manufacturing graphene flakes with less than 50–100 layers remained unachievable until 2004, when Andre Geim and Kostya Novoselov isolated graphene using adhesive tape. Graphene remained prohibitively pricey even after then. A centimetre square of monolayer CVD graphene cost 1000 euros in 2010. Due to the lack of a commercially viable approach, graphene will remain a laboratory material for a long period of time. Nonetheless, the European Commission announced the Graphene Flagship initiative in 2013, and other extensive research efforts have reduced the cost to less than two euros per square meter by 2020.
How Graphene made
Graphene is most commonly synthesized from graphite, a naturally occurring allotropy of carbon. Carbon atoms are organized in a hexagonal configuration with a strong covalent bond in graphite. These layers are held together by a weak Van der Waals force. This layer is composed entirely of graphene. Thus, graphene can be synthesized by disabling the van der Waals forces in graphite. Exfoliation is the process of removing each layer from graphene. While eliminating Van der Waals force is all that is required to generate graphene, efficient and cost-effective mass production is a hurdle. Chemical vapor deposition, mechanical exfoliation, chemical exfoliation, electrochemical exfoliation, chemical weathering exfoliation, and hydrothermal reduction liquid exfoliation are all techniques for creating graphene. Even while monolayer graphene with an atom-thick layer has the most intriguing features, it proved more difficult to manufacture on a wide scale. Thankfully, few-layer graphene has many of the same features as monolayer graphene. Numerous studies have introduced methods for producing few-layer graphene. One of them proposes the use of expansible graphene to generate graphene. First, heating the expansible graphite weakens the van der Waal force and then smashes the layers apart .
Graphene Technology Applications
With its remarkable qualities, graphene has a plethora of possible applications ranging from water filtration to quantum material. Sensors are necessary to detect and record all changes in the environment, regardless of how minute they are. The planar structure of graphene enables huge areas where each atom can interact separately with stimuli, ensuring a high degree of affectability. Another advantage that area of contact provides is the ability to filter water. Contact between the carbon and the water is critical for a successful filtering process. Due to graphene’s extraordinary electrical characteristics, it can be utilized as both the anode and cathode in today’s standard Lithium-Ion batteries. The availability of free elections and the absence of impediments to electron flow ensures high electron tunneling, extending the battery’s life and charge capacity. In sophisticated printing methods, graphene powder is used. Graphene’s amazing electrical properties enhance print quality and finish. Phase-changing materials and graphene composites exhibit superior thermophysical properties [3-4], making them suitable for energy storage applications . By sending an electric current through the lining and creating heat, graphene linings are used to prevent ice development on airplane flaps and helicopter rotor leaves in cold weather applications.
The best way to characterise graphene’s applications is as ‘limitless.’ While exfoliating monolayer graphene from graphite on a big scale is a tough operation, methods for producing few-layer graphene are currently being researched. The right manufacturing procedure enables mass production of graphene at a low cost and frees engineers to incorporate graphene into their designs. Once that occurs, graphene has the potential to take over any field. The graphene era, as well as a massive technological advancement, are just around the corner.
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 Fukun Ma, Liqiang Liu, Xiaolin Wang, Min Jing, Wenjie Tan, Xiaopeng Hao, “Rapid production of few layer graphene for energy storage via dry exfoliation of expansible graphite”, Compos. Sci. Technol. 185 (2020) 107895
 Y. Liu, D. Zhang, Effect of covalent functionalization and phase change matrix on heat transfer across graphene/phase change material interfaces, Appl. Therm. Eng. 151 (2019) 38–45.
 B. Praveen, S. Suresh, V. Pethurajan, Heat transfer performance of graphene nano-platelets laden micro-encapsulated PCM with polymer shell for thermal energy storage based heat sink, Appl. Therm. Eng. 156 (2019) 237–249.
 Z. Li, L. Wang, Y. Li, Y. Feng, W. Feng, Carbon-based functional nanomaterials: preparation, properties and applications, Compos. Sci. Technol. 179 (2019) 10–40
Cite this article:
By: Sampreeth k (2021), Graphene Age of Technology, Insights2Techinfo, pp: 1
FAQ on some important topics
The applications of graphene range from water filtration to quantum material. Due to graphene’s extraordinary electrical characteristics, it can be utilized as both the anode and cathode in today’s standard Lithium-Ion batteries.
Graphene is most commonly synthesized from graphite, a naturally occurring allotropy of carbon.
Yes, graphene is the future. Humanity may enter a graphene age similar to the store or iron ages. Having said that, graphene is now used in a limited number of applications, including sporting equipment, luxury automobiles, and military technologies.
Graphene costs two euros per square meter in 2020.