Quantum Computing’s Impact on Cryptography: The Future of Data Security

By: Aiyaan Hasan, International Center for AI and Cyber Security Research and Innovations (CCRI), Asia University, Taiwan, rayhasan114@gmail.com


In the world of cybersecurity, the emergence of Quantum computing ha been both, A blessing and a curse. While these quantum computers are capable enough and are promising to revolutionize the computing powers, their potential to be able to break the current cryptographic system possesses a major threat to our digital world and security. We delve into this impactful realm of quantum computing and cryptography as we quest for enhanced security for data protection.


In our advanced world, there is an increasing need of confidentiality, integrity and authenticity, and non-repudiation in the transmission of data which makes the science of cryptography one of the most critical areas in information technology.[1] Quantum computing is perhaps the most rapidly growing areas with respect to information sciences.[2] As the quantum computing technologies is continuing to advance, so does its potential  of being able to break through our current classical cryptographic systems, although it may sound a little scary at first, but the amount of impact quantum computing shall have in the near future is something we can’t imagine. Quantum computing can offer unbreakable and unimaginable security solutions which are based off on the principles of quantum mechanics.

Figure 1: Flowchart depicting data security and privacy

Figure 1: this flowchart visually represents the complex landscape of data security and privacy. It shows how concerns about the abuse of computers and threats to privacy lead to the implementation of technical safeguards and are supported by legal and regulatory frameworks.

As the computers and personal privacy continues to get abused through data banks, it has simulated curiosity in the technical realm for data.[3] Our society is becoming more digitally connected every coming data and as the volume of data that is closely associated to personal and sensitive information which is being stored in digital databases flourishes, it leads to the need of robust and comprehensive data protection measures that are required to be considered and are of paramount importance.

Any problem that can be solved by a classical computer, can also be solved by the quantum computer with higher efficiency.[4] Therefore as quantum computers continue to become much more advanced, the risk of data security increases, although quantum computing brings considerable advantages to the table but countermeasures are crucial with respect to the use of this technology.

The Quantum leap

In order to comprehend quantum computing on cryptography, it is important for us to understand the fundamental principles of the “quantum computation”. Unlike classical computers who have their entire work system based upon binary bits (0s and 1s), quantum computers use and utilize the quantum bits or qubits.[5] These particular qubits are capable of existing in multiple states simultaneously, this is based off on the principles of superposition and entanglement.

Cryptographic Foundations

The traditional cryptographic techniques are based off on mathematics which are computationally demanding when it comes to classical computers in order to solve efficiently.[6] For example, world renowned and widely used RSA algorithm which relies on the difficulty of factoring large numbers into their prime components, is the kind of process that requires considerable amount of time for classical computers or machines. Although, Quantum computing poses as a critical threat to these encryptions. A quantum computer would be capable of doing the same number of computations much more efficiently in lesser time. Hence making it a major concern.

Quantum computers are capable of efficiently solving mathematical challenges which are based off on classical encryption techniques. Therefore, encryption methods such as RSA and ECC (Elliptic curve cryptography) may become vulnerable to attacks which are being executed by quantum computers.

Post-Quantum Cryptography: A Ray of Hope

In response to the quantum threat, researchers are actively engaged into a new era of cryptography referred to as “post-quantum cryptography”. These cryptographic methodologies are designed to hand and withstand the brute force capabilities of quantum computers. Post-quantum cryptography explores alternative mathematical challenges which are believed to be resistant to quick quantum solutions.

Major developments in this field that have potential with respect to quantum computing in post-quantum cryptography include lattice-based cryptography, hash-based cryptography, code-based cryptography, and multivariate polynomial cryptography.[7] These innovative approaches offer a promising lifeline for data security as we venture into the era of quantum computing.

The quantum-safe transition

As we are approaching the era of quantum computing, governments and organizations should take strategic steps for a quantum-safe transition.[8] This includes the identification of critical systems which requires necessary upgrades to post-quantum cryptography, and also devising the migration strategies which ensures continuous security of data that is sensitive while the transition process is being carried out [9-13].

Quantum Key Distribution (QKD): A Quantum Solution

Quantum computers act as a threat to the classical encryption, they also offer a solution to a mode of communication that is secure. Quantum Key distribution (QKD). QKD uses the fundamental principles of quantum mechanics, for instance: the no-cloning theorem and the observer effect, in order to create encryption keys that are unbreakable.[9] QKD systems are already in use in our current world scenario and provide us with an insight into the future of data protection.


The emergence of digital data and the quantum computing have provided us with the insights to the importance of data safeguarding and cryptography, Encryption, legal frameworks and access controls play an important role in order to protect our data and digital assets.

quantum-safe cryptography and Quantum Key Distribution (QKD) are the representatives of the future of data security which are offering robust security and defences against these quantum attacks. So as to ensure the safeguarding of our data in this emerging quantum age, investing in quantum-safe solutions and adapting to the evolving digital landscape becomes crucial.


  1. Mavroeidis, V., Vishi, K., Zych, M. D., & Jøsang, A. (2018, March 31). The Impact of Quantum Computing on Present Cryptography. arXiv.org.
  2. Pirandola, S., Andersen, U. L., Banchi, L., Berta, M., Bunandar, D., Colbeck, R., Englund, D., Gehring, T., Lupo, C., Ottaviani, C., Pereira, J. L., Razavi, M., Shaari, J. S., Tomamichel, M., Usenko, V. C., Vallone, G., Villoresi, P., & Wallden, P. (2020, December 14). Advances in quantum cryptography. Advances in Quantum Cryptography.
  3. Denning, D. E., & Denning, P. J. (1979). Data security. ACM computing surveys (CSUR), 11(3), 227-249.
  4. Sharma, N., & Ketti Ramachandran, R. (2021). The emerging trends of quantum computing towards data security and key management. Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering, 1-14.
  5. O’Brien, K. L. (2016). Climate change and social transformations: is it time for a quantum leap?. Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Climate Change, 7(5), 618-626.
  6. Peikert, C. (2016). A decade of lattice cryptography. Foundations and trends® in theoretical computer science, 10(4), 283-424.
  7. Buchmann, J. A., Butin, D., Göpfert, F., & Petzoldt, A. (2016). Post-quantum cryptography: state of the art. The New Codebreakers: Essays Dedicated to David Kahn on the Occasion of His 85th Birthday, 88-108.
  8. Joseph, D., Misoczki, R., Manzano, M., Tricot, J., Pinuaga, F. D., Lacombe, O., … & Hansen, R. (2022). Transitioning organizations to post-quantum cryptography. Nature, 605(7909), 237-243
  9. Scarani, V., Bechmann-Pasquinucci, H., Cerf, N. J., Dušek, M., Lütkenhaus, N., & Peev, M. (2009). The security of practical quantum key distribution. Reviews of modern physics, 81(3), 1301.
  10. Fatima, S., & Ahmad, S. (2021). Quantum key distribution approach for secure authentication of cloud servers. International Journal of Cloud Applications and Computing (IJCAC), 11(3), 19-32.
  11. Ling, Z., & Hao, Z. J. (2022). An intrusion detection system based on normalized mutual information antibodies feature selection and adaptive quantum artificial immune system. International Journal on Semantic Web and Information Systems (IJSWIS), 18(1), 1-25.
  12. Abd El-Latif, A. A., Abd-El-Atty, B., Hossain, M. S., Rahman, M. A., Alamri, A., & Gupta, B. B. (2018). Efficient quantum information hiding for remote medical image sharing. IEEE Access, 6, 21075-21083.
  13. Pljonkin, A. P., Gupta, B. B., Rumyantsev, K. E., Korovin, I., & Schaefer, G. (2017, September). Features of detection of a single-photon pulse at synchronisation in quantum key distribution systems. In 2017 6th International Conference on Informatics, Electronics and Vision & 2017 7th International Symposium in Computational Medical and Health Technology (ICIEV-ISCMHT) (pp. 1-5). IEEE.

Cite As:

Hasan A. (2023) Quantum Computing’s Impact on Cryptography: The Future of Data Security, Insights2Techinfo, pp.1

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