Unbreakable Security in Data Encryption: Quantum Key Distribution (QKD)

By: Aiyaan Hasan, International Center for AI and Cyber Security Research and Innovations (CCRI), Asia University, Taiwan, rayhasan114@gmail.com

By using the core ideas of quantum physics, Quantum Key Distribution produces cryptographic keys with a degree of security that is unmatched by traditional cryptographic techniques. Through quantum state encoding, QKD enables two parties to create a secret key with the guarantee that any attempt at intercepting will cause the quantum state to fundamentally change, therefore notifying the authorised users of the breach. Beyond the field of information security, QKD is important. Applications for secure communication in a range of industries, including banking, government, and healthcare, are growing. Researchers are constantly trying to increase the range, boost efficiency, and incorporate QKD into current communication infrastructures as it continues to develop.


Though successful, traditional cryptographic algorithms are under threat from quantum computing’s quick progress, which could eventually make current encryption methods outdated.[1] Quantum Key Distribution (QKD), which provides unbreakable security in data encryption, has emerged as a ground-breaking and extremely promising approach in response to this problem.

QKD makes use of the ideas of quantum mechanics, compared to conventional cryptography methods, which rely on complex mathematical formulas that might eventually be defeated by the processing power of quantum computers.[2] Fundamental to quantum physics, QKD uses the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle to generate cryptographic keys that are theoretically resistant to surveillance.

The Quantum Key Distribution Process:

The foundation of QKD is the idea of entangled quantum particles, most commonly photons. This entanglement guarantees that, regardless of the distance separating them, the states of one particle and another are inherently connected.[3] The following are the main steps that comprise the QKD process:

  1. Creation of Entangled Particles: Entangled particle creation is the first step in QKD. After that, these particles are transmitted to the persons involved in communication, usually identified as Alice and Bob.[4]
  2. Measurement and Key Creation: Alice and Bob separately measure the characteristics of their individual entangled particles after receiving them. Their measurements are correlated as a result of the entanglement, which enables them to produce a shared secret key.
  3. Security Guarantees: QKD offers an unbreakable security guarantee, which is crucial. Any attempt to manipulate or eavesdrop on the quantum transmission is quickly identified. Since measuring an entangled particle irreversibly changes its state and makes an eavesdropper visible, this is a basic feature of quantum physics.

Applications of Quantum Key Distribution:

The importance of QKD goes beyond the lab and into several real-world applications:

  1. Government and Military Communications: Data security is crucial when it comes to secret communications. By providing a quantum barrier against listening in, QKD guarantees the privacy of sensitive data.
  2. Protection of Health Information: Health care facilities manage enormous volumes of private patient information. QKD can protect patient privacy by strengthening the security of telemedicine and electronic health records.
  3. Financial Transactions: Sensitive financial data and transactions in the finance sector depend on secure data transmission. Data breaches and financial fraud can both be avoided with QKD.
Figure 1: Applications of QKD


At the forefront of secure data encryption technology, Quantum Key Distribution uses the concepts of quantum mechanics to provide unbreakable protection. Through the utilization of quantum particle entanglement, QKD makes it possible to generate shared encryption keys that are unhackable. This innovative technique has significant implications for many different applications, ranging from improving privacy in the banking and healthcare industries to protecting government and military communications.

Unbreakable data encryption is becoming more and more necessary as the digital world changes. Emerging as a trailblazing solution, quantum key distribution is set to revolutionize the way we safeguard confidential data. QKD provides a revolutionary step toward reaching previously unheard-of levels of confidentiality and integrity in data communication in a world where data security is crucial.


  1. Scarani, V., Bechmann-Pasquinucci, H., Cerf, N. J., Dušek, M., Lütkenhaus, N., & Peev, M. (2009). The security of practical quantum key distribution. Reviews of modern physics, 81(3), 1301.
  2. Renner, R. (2008). Security of quantum key distribution. International Journal of Quantum Information, 6(01), 1-127.
  3. Steane, A. (1998). Quantum computing. Reports on Progress in Physics, 61(2), 117.
  4. Dutta, A., & Pathak, A. (2022). A short review on quantum identity authentication protocols: How would Bob know that he is talking with Alice?. Quantum Information Processing, 21(11), 369.
  5. Sahoo, S. R., & Gupta, B. B. (2019). Hybrid approach for detection of malicious profiles in twitter. Computers & Electrical Engineering, 76, 65-81.
  6. Gupta, B. B., Yadav, K., Razzak, I., Psannis, K., Castiglione, A., & Chang, X. (2021). A novel approach for phishing URLs detection using lexical based machine learning in a real-time environment. Computer Communications, 175, 47-57.
  7. Cvitić, I., Perakovic, D., Gupta, B. B., & Choo, K. K. R. (2021). Boosting-based DDoS detection in internet of things systems. IEEE Internet of Things Journal, 9(3), 2109-2123.
  8. Alieyan, K., Almomani, A., Anbar, M., Alauthman, M., Abdullah, R., & Gupta, B. B. (2021). DNS rule-based schema to botnet detection. Enterprise Information Systems, 15(4), 545-564.

Cite As:

Hasan A. (2023) Unbreakable Security in Data Encryption: Quantum Key Distribution (QKD), Insights2Techinfo, pp.1

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